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苏·范·钟(Sue Fawn Chung)著
拉斯维加斯大学名誉教授,
霓虹博物馆2021年入驻学者

第一部分:早年

Although the Chinese represented a small percentage of Las Vegas’ population -- 0.1990年为5%(但增长迅速,)他们为拉斯维加斯的发展做出了无数的贡献. In 1905 the sparsely populated Las Vegas Valley became important provisioning, 加油, 和圣佩德罗的浇水站, 洛杉矶, 盐湖铁路公司(后来的联合太平洋公司). 中国 were among the first settlers in the new train town to help in its development.

中国人最初是从广东和, 在较小程度上, 吸引他们的是矿业等职业, 铁路建设, 日志记录, 灌溉工作, 以及服务业.

Chinese miners wandered into northern Nevada in the 1850s and established Chinatowns in Dayton, 热那亚, 黄金峡谷, 维吉尼亚市, 和其他地方. A small group worked in wood charcoal making in the Mount Charleston area in the 1870s. 木炭被用作采矿的燃料,后来又被用于火车发动机.

整个美国西部, 中国人以他们的洗衣和餐馆生意和, 在这个意义上, 拉斯维加斯是典型的例子. In 1905 Ying Lee opened his laundry to serve the predominantly male population and three years later went into p艺术nership with Man Ying and Chin Yee to purchase the Arrowhead Restaurant. 一年后,他们把餐厅卖给了黄kee, 科罗拉多酒店的厨师, and soon the Arrowhead became a popular eating place for railroad workers, 火车的乘客, 和游客. 在他的阴暗Café的广告里, 黄kee注意到他提供的是炒杂碎, 面条, 和其他菜肴,也销售来自中国的商品.

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Chinese 面条, chow mein, and fried rice were favorites of early Las Vegans.

Prejudice and racism were p艺术 of the fabric of 19th and early 20th-century American society’s belief in white racial superiority, 是什么导致了暴力和歧视. 国会通过了一系列限制中国的法案, beginning with the 1882 Restrictive Act (aka Chinese Exclusion Act) prohibiting Chinese laborers from entering the U.S., 1892年Geary法案扩展并重新定义了1882年法案, and others culminating in the 1924 Nationality Quota Act that limited the number of Chinese exempt class immigrants, 比如学生、商人和他们的家人, 到106年,每年. The Geary Act expanded the meaning of laborers to include women who were not married to merchants, 医生, 受过西方教育部长, 和许多其他人.

种族主义和歧视普遍存在. 当地和地区的法律是严厉的. 暴力、偏见和杀戮司空见惯. 学生也受到了. 例如, 1921年2月, a Las Vegas grammar school teacher beat a 14-year-old Chinese boy so severely that he lost the use of his legs. 尽管报纸大肆宣传, 取笑, 伤人的评价, 投掷石块, 对中国人的暴力攻击仍在继续, 不分老幼. Job discrimination also limited what the educated Chinese American could do to earn a living in these early years. 在1944年之前, 大学毕业生还在做服务员,这并不罕见, 厨师, 和laundrymen. 这种情况直到1950年代和1960年代才有所改变.

The arrival of the Fong family eventually made a positive impact on Las Vegas. Wee King Fong and his oldest son Sui Mon Fong had served on the staff of General John G. 潘兴(1860-1948)在他的运动中反对潘乔·维拉. In 1917, 作为奖励, Pershing got the Fongs admitted to the United States despite the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. 他们最终在拉斯维加斯定居,并带来了一个弟弟, 隋回族方, 以40美元的投资在卡森街1号打开彩虹网站Café. No one ever left the Rainbow Café hungry and they had a reputation for their kindness throughout the community. Their business prospered and in 1933 they opened the Silver Café on North 1st and Fremont with an all-electric kitchen and 24-hour service that catered to railroad workers, 游客, 和当地人. 1939年他们指控, 例如, 七十五美分一顿完整的晚餐, 包括甜点派, 和特色的老虎机. 这是镇上三家餐馆之一.

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中国园林火柴盒. Richard Fukutaki Collection, The Neon Museum.

起初, the fronts of Chinese restaurants were indistinguishable from others but gradually some adopted Chinese architectural 设计s and added neon lights around the 1930s and 1940s.

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许多中餐馆都有吸引人的招牌,就像这个来自 中国花园咖啡馆 in 锡达城犹他州. This is currently the only sign from a Chinese restaurant at The Neon Museum and the only one not from Nevada.

The pace of life in Las Vegas remained slow until the st艺术 of construction in the early 1930s of the enormous hydroelectric Hoover Dam. 国家对大坝建设的管理条例, 哪一本写于1902年, 禁止在大坝项目中雇佣中国工人. 1941年,内利斯空军基地开放. 20世纪40年代和50年代, Harry Yam L Won and Fred Lee opened more Chinese restaurants to serve the growing tourist industry and those involved in the dam and air force base. Like the majority of Chinese restaurants in Nevada, both Chinese and American dishes were featured. The influx of new people also led to the development of more casinos and entertainment centers.

20世纪30年代,赌博在内华达州合法化. 中国, 谁从19世纪50年代末开始经营非官方游戏设施, sought to p艺术icipate in legalized gambling that would attract low to middle-income clients of all races, especially African Americans who were prohibited from p艺术icipating in most gaming halls. In 1931 Woo Sing unsuccessfully applied for a gaming license in Clark County, 然后在南缅因开了一家名为“唐人街”的现代晚餐俱乐部, 配有霓虹灯, 一位来自纽约的著名厨师, 还有两位著名的女艺人, 柏玲和柏青, 谁后来在好莱坞电影中工作.

中国 found a niche in casino operations by opening in West Las Vegas.

在1940年代, Harry Lee Fong和其他人开设了West Side Club和Zee Louie, 在强大的中国共济会的支持下, 开设了山雀(后来改名为路易斯安那)俱乐部. 从1950年到1970年, Sui Mon Fong (Big Fong) and Gim Fong (Little Fong) opened the Town Tavern at 600 Jackson Avenue, 它以休息室的表演者而闻名, 华人和非裔美国人雇员和美食. 1950年至1956年, 出生于霍桑的威廉和弗兰克·基, whose parents were friends of the political powerbroker George Wingfield (1876-1959,)在北H街1905号开设了El Cid俱乐部(后来被称为El里约热内卢). 它以好客和食物而闻名, it quickly became very popular but a fire in 1956 that followed the famous 红磨坊 (1955年5月- 10月)破产,迫使大门关闭. 威利死于试图扑灭大火而引起的心脏病发作. 1957年,弗兰克把俱乐部卖给了一家企业集团. 20世纪60年代末, Chinese American casino owners closed their doors as large casinos ended their racial discrimination policy. 美籍华人仍然梦想着拥有赌场.

想了解更多? “拉斯维加斯华人简史:第一部分I” will be available soon. 您也可以查看Dr. 苏·福恩·钟的常驻学者讲座 在这里.

拉菲1app在线登录平台作者:

Dr. Sue Fawn Chung出生在洛杉矶, 并毕业于加州大学, 洛杉矶, 哈佛大学, 和加州大学, 加州大学伯克利分校.  She began teaching history at UNLV in 1976 and retired in 2015 as professor emerita.  她曾担任拉斯维加斯大学国际项目主任, 拉斯维加斯大学历史系主席, 内华达博物馆和历史委员会成员, 克拉克县亚裔美国人专员, 国家人文教育基金委员会, 国家历史保护信托顾问, 和美国的顾问.S. 林务局.  她曾协助许多博物馆和媒体展示, 包括担任维加斯PBS的执行制片人, “岛山天.”  She won the Bancroft Award for one of her books the Schmeidel Award for Community Service, 狮子俱乐部杰出教育家奖, 以及内华达州人文杰出奖, 以及其他认可. 

 她写了大量拉菲1app在线登录平台美籍华人的文章, 包括《拉菲1app在线登录》(2011), In Pursuit of Gold: Chinese American Miners and Merchants in the American West (2011), 森林中的中国人:伐木和伐木. 在美国西部(2015), 而最近, “Tracking the Chinese Railroad Workers in Two Nevada Towns: Winnemucca and Elko,” (2017), “排华, 第一移民局, 以及1905年的中国特别人口普查,” (2018), 《隔着大洋:华裔美国人的葬礼仪式,” (2020), and “Out of the Shadows and into Politics: The Experience of Chinese American Women in the American West,” (2021). She currently is working on a book manuscript on Chinese railroad labor contractors. 

The Neon Museum’s annual Scholar in Residence lecture series brings leading scholars and other specialists to the Las Vegas community for enlightening lectures on history, 艺术, 设计, 和建筑. 

讲师与教育部门合作 & Outreach dep艺术ment to delve into the Neon Museum collection and develop presentations that have clear connections to the Museum’s mission and Las Vegas history.

这个项目得到了部分支持, 内华达州艺术委员会, 一个国家机构, 得到了国家艺术基金会的资助, 一个联邦机构, 以及内华达州.

 

 

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