A Brief History of the Chinese of Las Vegas: P艺术 I
作者:Sue Fawn Chung
Professor Emerita, UNLV
Neon Museum 2021 Scholar in Residence
尽管中国人只占拉斯维加斯人口的一小部分——0.5 percent in 1990 (but growing rapidly,) they have made numerous contributions to the development of Las Vegas. 1905年，人口稀少的拉斯维加斯谷成为重要的粮食供应地, 加油, and watering stop for the San Pedro, 洛杉矶, and Salt Lake Railroad (later Union Pacific). 中国人是第一批来到这个新火车镇的移民，帮助它的发展.
中国 originally immigrated from Guangdong and, 在较小程度上, Fujian provinces and were attracted by occupations like mining, 铁路建设, 日志记录, 灌溉工作, and the service industry.
中国矿工在19世纪50年代漫游到内华达州北部，并在代顿建立了唐人街, 热那亚, 黄金峡谷, 维吉尼亚市, 和其他地方. 19世纪70年代，有一小群人在查尔斯顿山地区从事木炭制作工作. The charcoal was used as fuel in mining and later in train engines.
Throughout the American West, the Chinese were noted for their laundry and restaurant businesses and, 在这个意义上, 拉斯维加斯是典型的. 1905年，李英英开设洗衣店，服务于以男性为主的香港人口。三年后，李英英与满英及陈毅合作，买下箭头餐厅. A year later they sold the restaurant to Wong Kee, a cook at the Colorado Hotel, 很快箭头酒吧就成为了铁路工人的一个受欢迎的就餐场所, 火车的乘客, 和游客. In an advertisement for his Shady Café, Wong Kee noted that he served chop suey, 面条, and other dishes and also sold goods from China.
偏见和种族主义是19世纪和20世纪早期美国社会对白人种族优越感信念的组成部分, which led to violence and discrimination. Congress passed a series of restrictive Chinese acts, 从1882年的《拉菲1app在线登录平台》(又名《拉菲1app在线登录平台》)开始，禁止华工进入美国.S., the 1892 Geary Act extending and redefining the 1882 Act, 以及其他限制中国豁免阶层移民数量的1924年《拉菲1app在线登录》(Nationality Quota Act)达到了顶峰, such as students and merchants and their family, 到106年,每年. 《拉菲1app在线登录平台》扩大了劳动者的含义，包括没有嫁给商人的女性, 医生, western-trained ministers, 和许多其他人.
Racism and discrimination were widespread. Local and regional laws were harsh. Violence, prejudice, and killings were commonplace. Schoolchildren also suffered. 例如, 1921年2月, 拉斯维加斯一名语法学校的老师狠狠地打了一名14岁的中国男孩，导致他失去了双腿的功能. Despite the newspaper publicity, 取笑, 伤人的评价, 投掷石块, and violent attacks continued against the Chinese, 无论老少. 工作歧视也限制了受过教育的华裔美国人早年的谋生能力. 在1944年之前, it was not uncommon to have college graduates still working as waiters, 厨师, 和laundrymen. The situation did not change until the 1950s and 1960s.
方家族的到来最终对拉斯维加斯产生了积极的影响. 方wee King和他的长子隋孟曾在将军John G. Pershing (1860-1948) in his campaign against Pancho Villa. In 1917, 作为奖励, 尽管1882年通过了《拉菲1app在线登录平台》(Chinese Exclusion Act)，潘兴还是让方氏一家进入了美国. They eventually settled in Las Vegas and brought a younger brother, 隋回族方, to open the Rainbow Café on 1st and Carson with a $40 investment. 从来没有人饿着肚子离开过彩虹Café他们的善良在社区里享有盛誉. 他们的生意兴隆起来，1933年，他们在北1街和弗里蒙特街(Fremont)开了Silver Café，配备了全电动厨房，并为铁路工人提供24小时服务, 游客, 和当地人. 1939年，他们起诉, 例如, seventy-five cents for a complete dinner, including pie for dessert, and featured slot machines. It was one of three restaurants in town.
中国 Garden matchbook. Richard Fukutaki Collection, The Neon Museum.
拉斯维加斯的生活节奏一直很缓慢，直到20世纪30年代初巨大的水电胡佛大坝开始建设. State regulations governing the construction of the dam, which were written in 1902, prohibited the hiring of Chinese workers on the dam project. In 1941 Nellis Air Force Base opened. 在1940年代 and 1950s, 任志刚(Harry Yam L Won)和李福瑞(Fred Lee)开了更多中餐馆，为日益增长的旅游业以及那些参与修建大坝和空军基地的人服务. 和内华达州的大多数中餐馆一样，中餐和美式菜肴都有特色. 新人口的涌入也导致了更多赌场和娱乐中心的发展.
The 1930s saw the legalization of gambling in Nevada. 中国, who had operated unofficial gaming facilities since the late 1850s, 寻求参与合法化的赌博，将吸引低收入到中等收入的客户，所有种族, 尤其是被禁止进入大多数游戏厅的非裔美国人. 1931年，吴星在克拉克郡申请游戏执照失败, then opened a modern supper club called “China Town” on South Main, complete with neon lights, a famous chef from New York, and two well-known female entertainers, 伯陵和伯青, who later went on to work in Hollywood films.
在1940年代, Harry Lee Fong and others opened the West Side Club and Zee Louie, with the backing of the powerful Binggongtang (Chinese Freemasons), opened the Chickadee (later renamed Louisiana) Club. 从1950年到1970年, Sui Mon Fong (Big Fong)和kim Fong (Little Fong)在杰克逊大道600号开设了Town Tavern餐厅, which became known for its lounge performers, Chinese and African American employees and good food. 从1950年到1956年, Hawthorne-born William and Frank Kee, 他的父母是政治掮客乔治·温菲尔德(George Wingfield, 1876-1959)的朋友,) opened the El Cid (later called El Rio) Club at 1905 North H Street. Noted for its hospitality and food, 它很快变得非常受欢迎，但1956年一场大火紧随其后 红磨坊 (opened May-October 1955) bankruptcy, forced the doors to be closed. Willie died from a he艺术 attack brought on by trying to put out the fire. In 1957, Frank sold the club to a conglomerate. 20世纪60年代末, 随着大型赌场结束种族歧视政策，美籍华人赌场老板纷纷关门大吉. Chinese Americans still dreamed of casino ownership.
想了解更多? 《拉菲1app在线登录平台》即将出版. 您也可以查看“Dr .. Sue Fawn Chung’s full Scholar in Residence lecture 在这里.
Dr. Sue Fawn Chung was born in 洛杉矶, California and graduated from the University of California, 洛杉矶, 哈佛大学, and the University of California, 加州大学伯克利分校. 她于1976年开始在拉斯维加斯大学教授历史，并于2015年作为荣誉教授退休. She has served as UNLV Director of International Programs, Chairperson of UNLV History Dep艺术ment, member of the Nevada Board of Museums and History, Clark County Asian American Commissioner, National Endowment for the Humanities Grants Committee, National Trust for Historic Preservation Advisor, and consultant for the U.S. 林务局. She has assisted in numerous museum and media presentations, including serving as executive producer of Vegas PBS, “岛山天.她的一本书获得了班克罗夫特奖和施梅德尔社区服务奖, the Lion’s Club Outstanding Educator Award, and the Nevada Humanities Outstanding Nevadan Award, as well as other recognitions.
She has written extensively on Chinese Americans, including 中国 in Nevada (2011), 《拉菲1app在线登录》(2011), 中国 in the Woods: Logging and Lumbering. In the American West (2015), 而最近, 《拉菲1app在线登录平台》(追踪内华达州两个城镇的中国铁路工人:Winnemucca和Elko),” (2017), “排华, the First Bureau of Immigration, and the 1905 Special Chinese Census,” (2018), “An Ocean Ap艺术: Chinese American Burial Rituals,” (2020), 以及《拉菲1app在线登录平台》,” (2021). 她目前正在写一本拉菲1app在线登录平台中国铁路劳务承包商的手稿.
拉菲1app在线登录的年度学者驻馆系列讲座将一流的学者和其他专家带到拉斯维加斯社区，进行具有启发性的历史讲座, 艺术, 设计, 和建筑.
Lecturers work with the 教育 & 拓展部门深入研究拉菲1app在线登录的藏品，并开发与博物馆的使命和拉斯维加斯历史有明确联系的展示.
This project is supported in p艺术, by the Nevada Arts Council, 一个国家机构, which receives support from the National Endowment for the Arts, 一个联邦机构, and the state of Nevada.